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DANIEL 8:9 LITTLE HORN WAXES GREAT GEOGRAPHICALLY

Updated: Dec 16, 2022

CHAPTER 9


As we go forward studying Daniel 8, we should keep in mind that the setting of Daniel 8 is within the context of “the river Ulai” or “river of the mighty powers”. Daniel 8 brings to view not just the rise and fall of world kingdoms but the rise and fall of the mighty powers in the battle between Christ and Satan. As we have seen earlier, the symbolism of the Ram and the He-goat, though used to represent literal kings and kingdoms also spiritually represent Christ (Ram) and Satan (He-goat). A third spiritual mighty power is brought to view here in the Little Horn Power of Daniel 8. That power, literally being the rise of the “holy Roman empire” is the “man of sin” or antichrist power brought to view in 2 Thessalonians 2. This portion of our study on the Little Horn of Daniel 8 will focus first on the geographical origins of the Little Horn Power and secondly on how the Little Horn Power becomes great as pointed out by Daniel 8:9-11. Thank you also to the historians I have quoted for historical confirmation of prophecy.

In Daniel 8:9 we are first introduced to the Little Horn Power by its geography to confirm its Greek origins. However, to really understand why I focus on the Byzantine Empire for the beginning identity of the Little Horn Power, one must really look at his character found in Daniel 8:9-12. In this chapter we will focus on geography of the the Little Horn Power and on how the Little Horn Power becomes great and wait until later chapters to look at the character of the Little Horn Power.


Daniel 8:9 And out of one of them came forth a little horn, which waxed exceeding great, toward the south, and toward the east, and toward the pleasant land.https://www.kingjamesbibleonline.org/Daniel-Chapter-8/


I invite you to look at the verse phrase by phrase Hebrew word meanings from the Strong’s Concordance for Daniel 8:9.


AND OUT OF ONE H259

אֶחָד ʼechâd, ekh-awd'; a numeral from H258; properly, united, i.e. one; or (as an ordinal) first:—a, alike, alone, altogether, and, any(-thing), apiece, a certain, (dai-) ly, each (one), eleven, every, few, first, highway, a man, once, one, only, other, some, together, https://www.blueletterbible.org/lang/Lexicon/Lexicon.cfm?strongs=H259&t=KJV


This leads us to believe that from one of the literal four divided kingdoms is where this Little Horn originates.


OF THEM CAME FORTH H3318

יָצָא yâtsâʼ, yaw-tsaw'; a primitive root; to go (causatively, bring) out, in a great variety of applications, literally and figuratively, direct and proxim.:—× after, appear, × assuredly, bear out, × begotten, break out, bring forth (out, up), carry out, come (abroad, out, thereat, without), be condemned, depart(-ing, -ure), draw forth, in the end, escape, exact, fail, fall (out), fetch forth (out), get away (forth, hence, out), (able to, cause to, let) go abroad (forth, on, out), going out, grow, have forth (out), issue out, lay (lie) out, lead out, pluck out, proceed, pull out, put away, be risen, × scarce, send with commandment, shoot forth, spread, spring out, stand out, × still, × surely, take forth (out), at any time, × to (and fro), utter.https://www.blueletterbible.org/lang/Lexicon/Lexicon.cfm?strongs=H3318&t=KJV


A LITTLE H4704

מִצְּעִירָה mitstsᵉʻîyrâh, mits-tseh-ee-raw'; feminine of H4705; properly, littleness; concretely, diminutive:—little. https://www.blueletterbible.org/lang/Lexicon/Lexicon.cfm?strongs=H4704&t=KJV

HORN H7161

קֶרֶן qeren, keh'-ren; from H7160; a horn (as projecting); by implication, a flask, cornet; by resemblance. an elephant's tooth (i.e. ivory), a corner (of the altar), a peak (of a mountain), a ray (of light); figuratively, power:—× hill, horn. https://www.blueletterbible.org/lang/Lexicon/Lexicon.cfm?page=2&strongs=H7161&t=KJV


WHICH WAXED EXCEEDING H3499

יֶתֶר yether, yeh'-ther; from H3498; properly, an overhanging, i.e. (by implication) an excess, superiority, remainder; also a small rope (as hanging free):— abundant, cord, exceeding, excellancy(-ent), what they leave, that hath left, plentifully, remnant, residue, rest, string, with. https://www.blueletterbible.org/lang/Lexicon/Lexicon.cfm?strongs=H3499&t=KJV


GREAT H1431

גָּדַל gâdal, gaw-dal'; a primitive root; properly, to twist (compare H1434), i.e. to be (causatively make) large (in various senses, as in body, mind, estate or honor, also in pride):—advance, boast, bring up, exceed, excellent, be(-come, do, give, make, wax), great(-er, come to... estate, things), grow(up), increase, lift up, magnify(-ifical), be much set by, nourish (up), pass, promote, proudly (spoken), tower. https://www.blueletterbible.org/lang/Lexicon/Lexicon.cfm?strongs=H1431&t=KJV

EASTWARD H4217

מִזְרָח mizrâch, miz-rawkh'; from H2224; sunrise, i.e. the east:—east (side, -ward), (sun-) rising (of the sun).https://www.blueletterbible.org/lang/Lexicon/Lexicon.cfm?strongs=H4217&t=KJV


SOUTHWARD H5045

נֶגֶב negeb, neh'-gheb; from an unused root meaning to be parched; the south (from its drought); specifically, the Negeb or southern district of Judah, occasionally, Egypt (as south to Palestine):—south (country, side, -ward). https://www.blueletterbible.org/lang/Lexicon/Lexicon.cfm?strongs=H5045&t=KJV


PLEASANT H6643

צְבִי tsᵉbîy, tseb-ee'; from H6638 in the sense of prominence; splendor (as conspicuous):—beautiful(-ty), glorious (-ry), goodly, pleasant, roe(-buck). https://www.blueletterbible.org/lang/Lexicon/Lexicon.cfm?strongs=H6643&t=KJV


GEOGRAPHICAL ORIGINS OF THE LITTLE HORN POWER


Daniel 8:9 tells us that the Little Horn Power does not come from the east, south or southeast. By deduction we know he comes from the north or northwest direction. Spiritually from our discussion of Daniel 8:4 we found the north and west are places of darkness and popularity respectively. Geographically a new kingdom coming out of one of these four kingdoms would have risen from the northwest kingdom ruled by Cassander or from the northern kingdom ruled by Lysimachus. Following the history below we see the Little Horn Power of Daniel 8 coming directly out of Macedonia but more specifically out of Lysimachus (northern kingdom) which was also the later site of the capital of the Byzantium Empire or Early Roman Empire whose capital was eventually renamed Constantinople after the Roman Emperor Constantine.

“After Alexander’s death his Empire was divided among his four generals (known in Latin as the Diadochi, the name by which they are still referenced, from the Greek, Diadokhoi, meaning "successors"):

To greater or lesser extents, all of these regions were Hellenized as Greek culture and religious beliefs influenced those of the indigenous people. “ https://www.ancient.eu/article/94/the-hellenistic-world-the-world-of-alexander-the-g/


https://www.ancient.eu/image/581/map-of-the-successor-kingdoms-c-303-bce/


History tells us thatall of these regions were Hellenized as Greek culture and religious beliefs influenced those of the indigenous people.“ The Greeks and even the Romans after them continued the systems of Greek culture and religious belief.

Moreover, geographically, the Romans also came from the northwest to conquer Greece. In this way, the Little Horn Power rising from the north or north west is fulfilled in two ways. See the military expansion of early Rome below.


Military Expansion

During the early republic, the Roman state grew exponentially in both size and power. Though the Gauls sacked and burned Rome in 390 B.C., the Romans rebounded under the leadership of the military hero Camillus, eventually gaining control of the entire Italian peninsula by 264 B.C. Rome then fought a series of wars known as the Punic Wars with Carthage, a powerful city-state in northern Africa. The first two Punic Wars ended with Rome in full control of Sicily, the western Mediterranean and much of Spain. In the Third Punic War (149–146 B.C.), the Romans captured and destroyed the city of Carthage and sold its surviving inhabitants into slavery, making a section of northern Africa a Roman province. At the same time, Rome also spread its influence east, defeating King Philip V of Macedonia in the Macedonian Wars and turning his kingdom into another Roman province. https://www.history.com/topics/ancient-history/ancient-rome

With the rise of the Republic of Rome and then the Roman Empire, Greek language, attitudes, philosophy, understanding, and overall culture spread even further. The Romans borrowed much of their civilization from the Greeks and as they conquered various regions which had previously been held by Alexander’s generals, they encouraged Hellenic thought and culture. https://www.ancient.eu/article/94/the-hellenistic-world-the-world-of-alexander-the-g/

“The Romans were far from tolerant of the beliefs of other nations unless they corresponded closely with their own. Adherence to Hellenic thought, therefore, was a popular alternative to persecution for the citizens of these regions. Greek thought, language, and culture spread north to Europe through trade and, further, by Roman conquest of regions such as modern-day France, Spain, and Britain, Hellenizing the entire world of antiquity and influencing virtually every culture which has contributed to the formation of learning and understanding in the world today.”

https://www.ancient.eu/article/94/the-hellenistic-world-the-world-of-alexander-the-g/

Though it seems the Roman Empire could be the Little Horn Power of Daniel 8, Daniel 8:9 tells us the Little Horn Power would come from one of the four horns or divisions of Greece. And Rome had its own origins not from one of those four divisions but originating instead in central Italy which was farther west of Greece.


THE LITTLE HORN WAXES EXCEEDINGLY GREAT


Daniel 8:9-11 has a repeated word that we must pay attention to fully understand the Little Horn Power. That word is “great.” It is the Hebrew word as follows:


GREAT 1431

גָּדַל gâdal, gaw-dal'; a primitive root; properly, to twist (compare H1434), i.e. to be (causatively make) large (in various senses, as in body, mind, estate or honor, also in pride):—advance, boast, bring up, exceed, excellent, be(-come, do, give, make, wax), great(-er, come to... estate, things), grow(up), increase, lift up, magnify(-ifical), be much set by, nourish (up), pass, promote, proudly (spoken), tower. https://www.blueletterbible.org/lang/Lexicon/Lexicon.cfm?strongs=H1431&t=KJV


The Little Horn Power waxes “great” in three specific ways and in a certain order. And that is how we know who fulfilled this prophecy.

Daniel 8:9 And out of one of them came forth a little horn, which waxed exceeding great, toward the south, and toward the east, and toward the pleasant land.

10 And it waxed great, even to the host of heaven; and it cast down some of the host and of the stars to the ground and stamped upon them.

11 Yea, he magnified himself even to the prince of the host, and by him the daily sacrifice was taken away, and the place of his sanctuary was cast down. https://www.kingjamesbibleonline.org/Daniel-Chapter-8/


1. In verse 9 he waxes geographically great toward the east and southeast and comes from the northwest.


2. In verse 10 he waxes great against the armies and messengers of heaven.


3. In verse 11 he waxes great against the Prince of the armies of heaven, which is Christ Himself.


It is for all the reasons above that another power more fits the bill for the rise of the Little Horn Power out of Greek origins. We will look at reasons #2 and #3 later. First, in context of Daniel 8:9 we will specifically look at the geographical evidence from the area of Lysimachus (one of the four kingdoms of Greece) which was also the later site of the capital of the Byzantium Empire whose capital was eventually named Constantinople.


Emperor Diocletian who ruled the Roman Empire from 284 to 305 CE believed that the empire was too big for one person to rule and divided it into a tetrarchy (rule of four) with an emperor (Augustus) and a co-emperor (Caesar) in both the east and west. Diocletian chose to rule the east. Young Constantine rose to power in the west when his father, Constantius, died. The ambitious ruler defeated his rival, Maxentius, for power at the Battle of Milvian Bridge and became sole emperor of the west in 312 CE. When Lucinius assumed power in the east in 313 CE, Constantine challenged and ultimately defeated him at the Battle of Chrysopolis, thereby reuniting the empire. https://www.ancient.eu/Constantinople/

See the map below to see how and when Constantine eventually became emperor of a new, united Christian/Pagan Rome.

Constantine takes power and Christianizes the empire

Timothy Moore

Diocletian set up an imperial structure called a “tetrarchy,” in which power was shared among four emperors. He wanted to provide more localized leadership for an empire that had become too sprawling and complex for any one man to manage. But after Diocletian’s death in 311 AD, the tetrarchy became a bloody tournament bracket for choosing Rome’s next emperor. The winner was Constantine, whomade some profound changes to the empire after he became Rome’s sole emperor in 324. He created a new imperial capital at Byzantium and renamed it Constantinople, laying the foundations for an Eastern Roman Empire that would endure long after the West fell. Even more important, Constantine was Rome’s first Christian emperor. When he took the throne, he began the transformation of Rome into a Christian empire. While some of his subjects resisted Christianity, the change ultimately stuck. As a result, Christianity became the dominant religion of Europe for the next 1,500 years.

https://www.vox.com/world/2018/6/19/17469176/roman-empire-maps-history-explained


Constantine was unsure where to locate his new capital. Old Rome was never considered. He understood the infrastructure of the city was declining; its economy was stagnant and the only source of income was becoming scarce. Nicomedia had everything he could want for a capital --a palace, a basilica and even a circus-- but it had been the capital of his predecessors, and he wanted something new. Although he had been tempted to build his capital on the site of ancient Troy, Constantine decided it was best to locate his new city at the site of old Byzantium, claiming it to be a New Rome (Nova Roma). The city had several advantages. It was closer to the geographic center of the Empire. Since it was surrounded almost entirely by water, it could be easily defended (especially when a chain was placed across the bay). The location provided an excellent harbor --thanks to the Golden Horn-- as well as easy access to the Danube River region and the Euphrates frontier. Thanks to the funding of Lucinius’s treasury and a special tax, a massive rebuilding project began.

https://www.ancient.eu/Constantinople/


History establishes the site of old Byzantine as the geographical connection of Rome to Greece just as scripture says. This means the Little Horn Powers of Daniel 7 and Daniel 8 can be the same.

Daniel 8:9 And out of one of them came forth a little horn, which waxed exceeding great, toward the south, and toward the east, and toward the pleasant land. https://www.kingjamesbibleonline.org/Daniel-Chapter-8/


Byzantine

adjective

Byz·​an·​tine | \ˈbi-zᵊn-ˌtēn, ˈbī-, -ˌtīn;bə-ˈzan-ˌ, bī-ˈ \

Definition of Byzantine

(Entry 1 of 2)

1: of, relating to, or characteristic of the ancient city of Byzantium Byzantine art

2: architecture : of, relating to, or having the characteristics of a style of architecture developed in the Byzantine Empire especially in the fifth and sixth centuries featuring the dome carried on pendentives over a square and incrustation with marble veneering and with colored mosaics on grounds of gold

3: Christianity : of or relating to the churches using a traditional Greek rite and subject to Eastern (see EASTERN sense 2) canon law

4: often not capitalized

a: of, relating to, or characterized by a devious and usually surreptitious manner of operational Byzantine power struggle

b: intricately involved : LABYRINTHINE rules of Byzantine complexity

https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/Byzantine


Constantinople (Greek: Κωνσταντινούπολις, translit. Kōnstantinoúpolis; Latin: Cōnstantīnopolis) was the capital city of the Roman/Byzantine Empire (330–1204 and 1261–1453), and also of the brief Crusader state known as the Latin Empire (1204–1261), until finally falling to the Ottoman (1453–1923) empire. It was reinaugurated in 324 from ancient Byzantium as the new capital of the Roman Empire by Emperor Constantine the Great, after whom it was named, and dedicated on 11 May 330.[5] The city was largely located in what is now the European side and the core of modern Istanbul.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Constantinople



The Byzantine Empire, often called the Eastern Roman Empire or simply Byzantium, existed from 330 to 1453 CE. With its capital founded at Constantinople by Constantine I (r. 306-337 CE), the Empire varied in size over the centuries, at one time or another, possessing territories located in Italy, Greece, the Balkans, Levant, Asia Minor, and North Africa. A Christian state with Greek as the official language, the Byzantines developed their own political systems, religious practices, art and architecture, which, although significantly influenced by the Greco-Roman cultural tradition, were distinct and not merely a continuation of ancient Rome. The Byzantine Empire was the longest-lasting medieval power, and its influence continues today, especially in the religion, art, architecture, and law of many Western states, Eastern and Central Europe, and Russia.

https://www.ancient.eu/Byzantine_Empire/



The Byzantine Empire did as the Bible says, expanding east and southeast and toward Israel described in scripture as “the pleasant land”. The western portion of the empire fell in 476 A.D..


Daniel 8:9 And out of one of them came forth a little horn, which waxed exceeding great, toward the south, and toward the east, and toward the pleasant land. https://www.kingjamesbibleonline.org/Daniel-Chapter-8/


The Byzantine Empire was a vast and powerful civilization with origins that can be traced to 330 A.D., when the Roman emperor Constantine I dedicated a “New Rome” on the site of the ancient Greek colony of Byzantium. Though the western half of the Roman Empire crumbled and fell in 476 A.D., the eastern half survived for 1,000 more years, spawning a rich tradition of art, literature and learning and serving as a military buffer between Europe and Asia. The Byzantine Empire finally fell in 1453, after an Ottoman army stormed Constantinople during the reign of Constantine XI. https://www.history.com/topics/ancient-middle-east/byzantine-empire


The term “Byzantine Empire” came into common use during the 18th and 19th centuries, but it would’ve been completely alien to the Empire’s ancient inhabitants. For them, Byzantium was a continuation of the Roman Empire, which had merely moved its seat of power from Rome to a new eastern capital in Constantinople. Though largely Greek-speaking and Christian, the Byzantines called themselves “Romaioi,” or Romans, and they still subscribed to Roman law and reveled in Roman culture and games. While Byzantium later developed a distinctive, Greek-influenced identity as the centuries wore on, it continued to cherish its Roman roots until its fall. Upon conquering Constantinople in 1453, the Turkish leader Mehmed II even claimed the title “Caesar of Rome.” https://www.history.com/news/10-things-you-may-not-know-about-the-byzantine-empire




If you have studied the book of Daniel, you have previously seen another “Little Horn power” in Daniel 7. However, its origins there, rather than Greek, are from the fourth beast representative of the Roman Empire. I hope by looking at the history above you can see that the Little Horn power originating from Rome from Daniel 7 being the Papal government or Roman Catholic Church and the Little Horn power rising out of Eastern Roman Empire capital of Constantinople are geographically connected at their roots by the Roman Emperor Constantine and of the same origin and are both the “Little Horn” power, the first showing its Roman state roots and the second its Greek cultural roots.

In summary we have seen the historical evidence that backs up the growth of the Little Horn power being the Greek Eastern Orthodox Church also the Roman Catholic church in the three ways it was said to grow great Biblically.

Historical records have established that the Little Horn power did come from the north as far as its Greek roots are concerned from the geographical area of Lysimachus which was one of the four divided kingdoms of Greece and which was also much later the site of the capital of the Byzantium Empire whose capital was eventually named Constantinople after its first Roman emperor, Constantine.

As we study Daniel 8:9-11 further we will find that these self-proclaimed powers which together should not be held by sinful man were abused and used to destroy and persecute God’s church.

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