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DANIEL 8:6 HOW THE HE-GOAT RAMS THE RAM/HOW ALEXANDER DESTROYS THE MEDES & PERSIANS

Updated: Dec 13, 2022

CHAPTER 6



Daniel 8:6-7 gives us methodology of the He-goat as he destroys the Ram. Each phrase of his methodology is important in understanding the literal way that Alexander the Great conquered the Medo-Persian kingdom. It becomes even more important as we look forward to the cross and the way Satan worked to try to destroy or overcome Christ. And it becomes even more important as in later chapters we look at the end-time fulfilment of this prophecy and how Satan once again works to destroy the power’s that enable God’s people to tell the gospel message to the world. To begin, I have chosen to just focus on the literal fulfilment of this prophecy first. After an initial reminder of what the Ram and He-goat literally and spiritually represent, I have broken up the verses into subheadings for each phrase.

Daniel 8:6 And he came to the ram that had two horns, which I had seen standing before the river, and ran unto him in the fury of his power. https://www.kingjamesbibleonline.org/Daniel-Chapter-8/


In review, the Ram literally represents the kings of Medo-Persia who were called by God to use their power to free His people (the Jews) to lay the foundation of and to build the temple of God (religious liberty) and to free them to govern themselves as a nation under God (civil liberty). The Ram is standing before the “river of the mighties” as the leader of the world.


Looking at Daniel 8 in light of the cross and the sufferings of Christ, the Ram also spiritually represents Christ, as the Lamb slain from the foundation of the world, Who has laid Himself down as the cornerstone of the government of God consequently liberating His people from the bonds of sin and giving them power to go into all the world to teach the gospel (freedom of worship of the true God to the world) and to teach the world to observe His commandments or laws (freedom to govern themselves as a new Christian nation under God).


Matthew 28:18 And Jesus came and spake unto them, saying, All power is given unto me in heaven and in earth.

19 Go ye therefore, and teach all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost:

20 Teaching them to observe all things whatsoever I have commanded you: and, lo, I am with you alway, even unto the end of the world. Amen. https://www.kingjamesbibleonline.org/Matthew-Chapter-28/


Following the Ram, The He-goat, literally represents Greece, and spiritually represents the Gentile world. He rams into or opposes the Ram. Literally we are reminded of His notable or visionary horn power, literally representing the first king of Greece, who was Alexander the Great’s father, Phillip II. King Phillip had a vision to conquer the kings of the Medes and the Persians and to be the ruler of the world. Spiritually, by the noteable horn power of the He-goat, we are reminded of the world’s first Gentile king, Satan, whose notable or visionary horn is to conquer Christ and His kingdom on earth and to rule the world.


What we see in Daniel 8:6-7 is the method and character of the He-goat as he destroys the two horns of the Ram. We will look at this method phrase by phrase to first to understand how Alexander the Great destroyed the powers of the Medo-Persian kings and then to spiritually understand how Satan worked to destroy Christ.

Daniel 8:6 And he came to the ram that had two horns, which I had seen standing before the river, and ran unto him in the fury of his power.

7 And I saw him come close unto the ram, and he was moved with choler against him, and smote the ram, and brake his two horns: and there was no power in the ram to stand before him, but he cast him down to the ground, and stamped upon him: and there was none that could deliver the ram out of his hand. https://www.kingjamesbibleonline.org/Daniel-Chapter-8/

RAN UNTO HIM

The Hebrew words translated “ran unto him” mean to divide and break down as seen per the Strong’s Concordance.


RAN UNTO HIM H7323

רוּץ rûwts, roots; a primitive root; to run (for whatever reason, especially to rush):—break down, divide speedily, footman, guard, bring hastily, (make) run (away, through), post. https://www.blueletterbible.org/lang/Lexicon/Lexicon.cfm?strongs=H7323&t=KJV


Hidden in this phrase we are historically and literally reminded of the speed of Greece in conquering her foes using Phillip II’s method or strategy to divide and conquer.


Definition of divide et impera

: divide and rule : split the opposition so that it ceases to threaten your own power

https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/divide%20et%20impera


“However, the Latin saying ‘Divide et impera’ was not from Roman origin. It is being said that the father of Alexander the Great, Philipus II of Macedon, used this motto to gain power over the independent Greek city states during his conquering of Greece. He played the different city states off against each other with diplomatic, marriage, political and military power.”

https://www.quora.com/What-are-some-great-examples-of-divide-and-conquer-in-history


Speed is also part of phrase “ran unto him” in Daniel 8:6. This was predicted in Bible prophecy regarding the kingdom of Greece which is also represented in Daniel 7 by a leopard, which is partly known in his natural character for speed.

Daniel 7:6 After this I beheld, and lo another, like a leopard, which had upon the back of it four wings of a fowl; the beast had also four heads; and dominion was given to it.

https://www.kingjamesbibleonline.org/Daniel-Chapter-7/


FURY OF HIS POWER


The Hebrew words in Daniel 8:6 translated “fury of his power” mean anger or indignation as seen by the Strong’s Concordance below. We are literally reminded of the character of Alexander the Great who in powerful fury conquered the Medes and Persians.


FURY OF HIS POWER H2534

חֵמָה chêmâh, khay-maw'; or (Daniel 11:44) חֵמָא chêmâʼ; from H3179; heat; figuratively, anger, poison (from its fever):—anger, bottles, hot displeasure, furious(-ly, -ry), heat, indignation, poison, rage, wrath(-ful). See H2529. https://www.blueletterbible.org/lang/Lexicon/Lexicon.cfm?strongs=H2534&t=KJV


“But the man known as Alexander the Great was also one of history’s worst monsters. He was a murderous, rage-filled, paranoid, alcoholic, religious fanatic who, on at least one occasion, showed a fondness for what today might be considered necrophilia. He murdered often, at times indiscriminately. He assassinated rivals a dozen at a time, slaughtered innocents by the thousands, and exterminated entire tribes of people. It’s no exaggeration to say that Alexander killed off a generation of Macedonian officers—veterans he needed to run the army he inherited from his father, Philip. Nor were friends and family spared; within days of taking the throne, he killed Philip’s most recent wife and her new infant.

Recent scholarship has added detail to many of Alexander’s atrocities. But there’s still little to explain them. Some historians write the horrors off as the excesses of a megalomaniac and alcoholic. Indeed, he was drunk when he ordered the burning of the Persian capital, Persepolis, in 330.

Other scholars argue that Alexander’s barbarity stemmed from a strategic decision to systematically destroy his enemy, root and stem. [See “Alexander the Killer,” Spring 1998.]

These theories don’t always add up. Alexander’s atrocities, for example, often did more to stir opposition than to quell it; he was too smart to pursue such a failing strategy for long. But there’s at least one other explanation worth exploring: His penchant for atrocity and violence may have been rooted in deep seated fears that he did not have what it took to be a soldier and commander. Though the most formidable figure of his time, he grew up estranged from the culture of the Macedonian warrior and came to power ill equipped to command an army. Marginalized and perhaps insecure about his abilities, he seemed angry and intent on proving himself through violence. Many accounts of his most heinous crimes describe him as flying into a rage, his anger begetting violence.

It is, of course, risky business to plumb the psychological depths of such a complex historical figure as Alexander, particularly because antiquity provides scant data. Yet the exercise proves valuable, if only to suggest a different way to understand the enigmas that Alexander’s life presents.”

http://www.historynet.com/alexander-the-monster.htm


COME CLOSE


Daniel 8:7 And I saw him come close unto the ram, and he was moved with choler against him, and smote the ram, and brake his two horns: and there was no power in the ram to stand before him, but he cast him down to the ground, and stamped upon him: and there was none that could deliver the ram out of his hand. https://www.kingjamesbibleonline.org/Daniel-Chapter-8/

The Hebrew words translated “come close” in Daniel 8:7 remind us of a personal touch whether it be friendly or hurtful as seen from the Strong’s Concordance below.


COME CLOSE H5060

נָגַע nâgaʻ, naw-gah'; a primitive root; properly, to touch, i.e. lay the hand upon (for any purpose; euphemistically, to lie with a woman); by implication, to reach (figuratively, to arrive, acquire); violently, to strike (punish, defeat, destroy, etc.):—beat, (× be able to) bring (down), cast, come (nigh), draw near (nigh), get up, happen, join, near, plague, reach (up), smite, strike, touch.https://www.blueletterbible.org/lang/Lexicon/Lexicon.cfm?strongs=H5060&t=KJV

One way this Hebrew word is translated is found in Genesis 20:6 with the word “touch”.

Genesis 20:6 And God said unto him in a dream, Yea, I know that thou didst this in the integrity of thy heart; for I also withheld thee from sinning against me: therefore suffered I thee not to touch her.https://www.kingjamesbibleonline.org/Genesis-Chapter-20/

In this idea of touch between a man and woman, Alexander the Great used marriage (coming close to each other) to try to unite Persia with Greek culture. See the following.


“The Susa weddings was a mass wedding arranged by Alexander of Macedon in 324 BC in the Persian city of Susa.[1]

Alexander intended to symbolically unite the Persian and Greek cultures, by taking a Persian wife himself and celebrating a mass wedding with Persian ceremony along with his officers, for whom he arranged marriages with noble Persian wives.[2] The union was not only symbolic, as the new offspring were to be the children of both civilizations.

Alexander was already married to Roxana, the daughter of a Bactrianchief, but Macedonian and Persian customs allowed several wives. Alexander himself married Stateira (sometimes called Barsine, but not to be confused with Barsine, wife of Memnon), the eldest daughter of Darius, and, according to Aristobulus, another wife in addition, Parysatis, the youngest daughter of Artaxerxes III.[3] To Hephaestion he gave Drypetis; she too was the daughter of Darius, his own wife's sister, for he wanted Hephaestion's children to be his own nephews and nieces (This can also be linked to Alexander and Hephaestion's close relationship). To Seleucushe gave Apama, the daughter of Spitamenes the Bactrian, and likewise to the other Companions the daughters of the most notable Medes and Persians, eighty in all. Ptolemy I Soter married Artakama, daughter of Artabazus of Phrygia. https://www.revolvy.com/page/Susa-weddings

MOVED WITH CHOLER


Daniel 8:7And I saw him come close unto the ram, and he was moved with choler against him, and smote the ram, and brake his two horns: and there was no power in the ram to stand before him, but he cast him down to the ground, and stamped upon him: and there was none that could deliver the ram out of his hand.


The Hebrew words translated “moved with choler” in Daniel 8:7 mean “to be moved with bitterness”.

MOVED WITH CHOLER AGAINST HIM H4843

ר mârar, maw-rar'; a primitive root; properly, to trickle (see H4752); but used only as a denominative from H4751; to be (causatively, make) bitter (literally or figuratively):—(be, be in, deal, have, make) bitter(-ly, -ness), be moved with choler, (be, have sorely, it) grieved(-eth), provoke, vex.https://www.blueletterbible.org/lang/Lexicon/Lexicon.cfm?strongs=H4843&t=KJV


“After three grueling years of warfare and three decisive battles, Alexander smashed the Persian armies at the Tigris River and conquered the mighty Persian Empire, including the legendary city of Babylon. For many Greeks, this victory marked a moment of sweet revenge against a bitter foe.” http://www.ushistory.org/civ/5g.asp


SMOTE THE RAM


The Hebrew words “smote the ram” in Daniel 8:7, mean to wound to death. These words remind us that Alexander did not intend to allow the Medo-Persian kingdom to remain viable.


Daniel 8:7 And I saw him come close unto the ram, and he was moved with choler against him, and smote the ram, and brake his two horns: and there was no power in the ram to stand before him, but he cast him down to the ground, and stamped upon him: and there was none that could deliver the ram out of his hand. https://www.kingjamesbibleonline.org/Daniel-Chapter-8/

SMOTE THE RAM H5221:

נָכָה nâkâh, naw-kaw'; a primitive root; to strike (lightly or severely, literally or figuratively):—beat, cast forth, clap, give (wounds), × go forward, × indeed, kill, make (slaughter), murderer, punish, slaughter, slay(-er, -ing), smite(-r, -ing), strike, be stricken, (give) stripes, × surely, wound. https://www.blueletterbible.org/lang/Lexicon/Lexicon.cfm?strongs=H5221&t=KJV


Here we are literally reminded that Alexander would kill the kingdom of Persia. And in the following phrases we see how he does that.


BREAK HIS TWO HORNS


Daniel 8:7 And I saw him come close unto the ram, and he was moved with choler against him, and smote the ram, and brake his two horns: and there was no power in the ram to stand before him, but he cast him down to the ground, and stamped upon him: and there was none that could deliver the ram out of his hand.https://www.kingjamesbibleonline.org/Daniel-Chapter-8/

The Hebrew word translated “break” in Daniel 8:7 means to “destroy.”


BREAK H7665

שָׁבַר shâbar, shaw-bar'; a primitive root; to burst (literally or figuratively):—break (down, off, in pieces, up), broken (-hearted), bring to the birth, crush, destroy, hurt, quench, × quite, tear, view (by mistake for H7663).


When we think of breaking the two horns of the Medes and Persians we must remember their powers, as concerns one of the overall themes of the vision which is God and his temple. The Medo-Persian kings were to use their power to give religious liberty (liberty to the people to worship according to the dictates of their conscience) and civil liberty (liberty to the people to govern themselves) to the Hebrews. The method Alexander used was to gradually infiltrate the kingdom especially where political unrest and poor leadership was found. In so doing he literally broke the kingdom apart by building his kingdom up on the resentments regarding the Persian kingdom. To understand better, read the following.


“Social- The social structure started to break down once there was no longer a strong leader. The people below the upper class started organizing riots and other actions of revolt against the rulers. This caused the rulers to go against their religion by working for the evil spirits. Kings became greedy and began stealing from the supply of riches rather than giving it to the people.”https://sites.google.com/a/jeffcoschools.us/ancient-persia-dreier-lyons/reasons-for-its-decline-and-fall

“Political-

For one thing, weak rulers led to numerous provincial revolts, especially in Egypt, which always had detested Persian rule. Secondly, the provincial satraps also became more independent, ruling their satrapies more as kings than as the king's loyal subjects. They even carried on their own foreign policies and waged war on each other, which only added to Persia's problems. Revolts and unruly satraps caused serious economic problems for the empire. The government definitely grew weaker after the start of the fall of the Persian empire. The government struggled with thriving without having a strong ruler that could train armies to battle and gain wealth for Persia. The government started to shift to a very dysfunctional dictatorship. The Persian army was negatively affected because they no longer had a strong base or leader to keep them in line.

https://sites.google.com/a/jeffcoschools.us/ancient-persia-dreier-lyons/reasons-for-its-decline-and-fall

“Economic-

Persian taxes became heavier and more oppressive, which led to economic depression and revolts, which in turn led to more repression, heavier taxes and so on. The Persian kings also started hoarding gold and silver rather than re-circulating it. This created economic turmoil without enough gold and silver for doing business. As a result of this economic turmoil, the Persian kings got weaker still, which fed back into the problem of revolts and powerful satraps and so on. Crop production decreased as well which caused more commoners to leave and less trade to happen.”

https://sites.google.com/a/jeffcoschools.us/ancient-persia-dreier-lyons/reasons-for-its-decline-and-fall


We also need to inspect the strategy in Alexander the Great’s Battle plan as seen below. He used a gradual coastal area approach. He kept the full truth from his officers. He built his support upon the unpopularity of the ruling government. He also won over popular support by a careful display of religious piety.


Conquering Persia

After the victory, Alexander did not make a rush into the heart of the Persian empire, as might have been expected, but rather persisted in his gradual approach of securing coastal areas. Though Alexander continued to break down the Persian fleet, his strategy also gave Darius time to raise a larger army.

Darius also made a first attempt to achieve a peaceful settlement. Although the tone of his letter was arrogant, he offered to cede a significant portion of Asia Minor to Alexander. The concession was difficult to refuse, as the offered area had probably been the objective of Philip's campaign. When Alexander read the letter to his officers, therefore he omitted the section that included the offer. The offers, who heard only Darius's arrogant tone, urged Alexander to continue with the campaign. Alexander sent back a harsh reply justifying the Macedonian mission. It became evident to all that the war would have to come down to a final showdown for the kingdom.

In the meantime, Alexander began his march into the Phoenician territory, where every city-state was under the rule of Persia, but almost all reluctantly. Many cities forced their Persian puppet rulers to surrender to the Macedonians. Alexander replaced the rulers with popular successors, thereby winning himself significant local support.

The one city that chose to oppose Alexander was Tyre, which had long been faithful to Persia and had been the only Phoenician city not to participate in the revolt of the 340s B.C. The Tyrians put up such a strong fight that Alexander succeeded only after seven months, after recruiting ships from Sidon to fend off the Tyrian fleet. The main difficulty, however, was the strength of Tyre's heavily guarded city wall.

Alexander caught a break only when the Tyrians, exhausted and low in morale, took a gamble and launched a surprise sea attack. By luck, Alexander had not been in the location of the attack as the Tyrians had assumed he would be. He was able to round up his ships and catch the Tyrians from the rear. At this point it was only a matter of time before the wall of Tyre was breached. Once again, the slaughter was ruthless. Almost no males were spared; the women and children, numbering 30,000, were sold into slavery. The siege, which finally came to its end in July 332 B.C., is considered, from a purely military standpoint, to be Alexander's greatest achievement.

The victory at Tyre, combined with successful resistance to Persian counterattacks, led to Darius's second offer of peace. He offered 10,000 talents for the release of his family and even more territory. He also invited Alexander to marry his daughter and become the friend of the Persian royal house. More confident after the siege of Tyre, Alexander read the letter to his officers. Despite Parmenion's advice, Alexander refused to negotiate, and instead replied with another harsh letter.


Conquering Persia

After Alexander's forces took Gaza, the path to Egypt opened up. In ancient times, Egypt was the goal of many foreign empires, as its wealth was considerable. The land also presented a challenge, however, as it was surrounded by desert on three sides. The Egyptians, who deeply resented Persian rule, surrendered to Alexander without a fight. Alexander was crowned Pharaoh and underwent all the traditional rituals; he won over popular support by a careful display of religious piety. When Alexander died and his empire was distributed, Egypt would be claimed by Ptolemy, who set up a private estate and created a dynasty that benefited from Alexander's popular reception. In 331 B.C., the new Pharaoh began to explore the lower part of his territory. In the western part of the Nile Delta he found a coastal region that appeared suitable for a city; soon Alexandria–named such even to this day–was founded.

By the spring of 331 B.C., the Macedonian army was on its way back to Phoenicia, where it would begin the final preparations for the Persian invasion. Alexander had to tend to several administrative matters among the various governments and rulers he had installed. In the meantime, Darius organized and stationed his Grand Army on the Euphrates at Babylon, the capital of Mesopotamia. Darius, who expected Alexander's route to follow the Euphrates, hoped to gain an advantage by choosing his own optimal battleground. Moreover, Darius sent a scout to disrupt the expected route, in order to make Alexander's journey as difficult as possible.

Alexander, however, saw through this plan completely, so he took a longer route that ran by the Tigris River. He recognized that the Persians would either lose spirit and energy in their extended wait, or else be forced to meet him at the Tigris. Darius decided to try to ambush the Macedonians as they were crossing the river–a tactic that required the Macedonians not only reach the area before Alexander, but also correctly predict where he would try to cross. Alexander had the fortune of capturing some Persian scouts and learning Darius's plans. He was able to change routes and cross the river undisturbed, though the crossing was difficult and a Persian ambush would have been devastating. Darius's plans had, then, been foiled a second time, and his only recourse was to find the most suitable ground for battle at this point. He chose a field near the village of Gaugamela.” https://www.sparknotes.com/biography/alexander/section8/page/2/


NO POWER IN THE RAM TO STAND BEFORE HIM


Daniel 8:7 And I saw him come close unto the ram, and he was moved with choler against him, and smote the ram, and brake his two horns: and there was no power in the ram to stand before him, but he cast him down to the ground, and stamped upon him: and there was none that could deliver the ram out of his hand. https://www.kingjamesbibleonline.org/Daniel-Chapter-8/


Leviticus 26:19 And I will break the pride of your power; and I will make your heaven as iron, and your earth as brass: https://www.kingjamesbibleonline.org/Leviticus-Chapter-26/

Breaking the Ram’s horns rendered him powerless. This is another argument in favor of horns being associated and sometimes synonymous with power. Without these powers the Ram could not continue or stand fast.


STAND H5975:

עָמַד ʻâmad, aw-mad'; a primitive root; to stand, in various relations (literal and figurative, intransitive and transitive):—abide (behind), appoint, arise, cease, confirm, continue, dwell, be employed, endure, establish, leave, make, ordain, be (over), place, (be) present (self), raise up, remain, repair, serve, set (forth, over, -tle, up), (make to, make to be at a, with-) stand (by, fast, firm, still, up), (be at a) stay (up), tarry. https://www.blueletterbible.org/lang/Lexicon/Lexicon.cfm?strongs=H5975&t=KJV

Daniel 8:3 Then I lifted up mine eyes, and saw, and, behold, there stood before the river a ram which had two horns: and the two horns were high; but one was higher than the other, and the higher came up last.https://www.kingjamesbibleonline.org/Daniel-Chapter-8/


In Daniel 8:7, we find out that the two horns are what enabled the Ram to stand or to continue or to be established; and now with the horns broken the Ram cannot stand or continue or be established. And this act is re-emphasized with the throwing away and to the ground of the Ram, much like a literal goat and ram battle.


BUT HE CAST HIM TO THE GROUND

Daniel 8:7 And I saw him come close unto the ram, and he was moved with choler against him, and smote the ram, and brake his two horns: and there was no power in the ram to stand before him, but he cast him down to the ground, and stamped upon him: and there was none that could deliver the ram out of his hand. https://www.kingjamesbibleonline.org/Daniel-Chapter-8/

CAST H7993

שָׁלַךְ shâlak, shaw-lak; a primitive root; to throw out, down or away (literally or figuratively):—adventure, cast (away, down, forth, off, out), hurl, pluck, throw. https://www.blueletterbible.org/lang/Lexicon/Lexicon.cfm?strongs=H7993&t=KJV


GROUND H776

אֶרֶץ ʼerets, eh'-rets; from an unused root probably meaning to be firm; the earth (at large, or partitively a land):—× common, country, earth, field, ground, land, × natins, way, + wilderness, world. https://www.blueletterbible.org/lang/Lexicon/Lexicon.cfm?strongs=H776&t=KJV

Jeremiah 51:40 I will bring them down like lambs to the slaughter, like rams with he goats.

https://www.kingjamesbibleonline.org/Jeremiah-Chapter-51/


“The victory at Tyre, combined with successful resistance to Persian counterattacks, led to Darius's second offer of peace. He offered 10,000 talents for the release of his family and even more territory. He also invited Alexander to marry his daughter and become the friend of the Persian royal house. More confident after the siege of Tyre, Alexander read the letter to his officers. Despite Parmenion's advice, Alexander refused to negotiate, and instead replied with another harsh letter.

….. The battle took place on October 1, 331 B.C. Darius's army stood on the strength of its 34,000 cavalry, who were well trained and equipped. His infantry, which may have amounted to nearly 100,000, was of little value beyond the core group of 2,000 Greek mercenaries and the 2,000 Persians who constituted the royal bodyguard. Though Alexander's army was considerably smaller, he employed his troops efficiently. Timing the attack perfectly, he began by fighting on the defensive until he saw the gap that his Companions could exploit. Soon, Darius was in danger of being encircled, and he was again forced to flee. Alexander stayed to carry out the battle, which again ended in a rout. The decisive battle proved to be one of the influential in world history. Alexander had essentially crippled Darius, and all that remained was a formal handover of power.” https://www.sparknotes.com/biography/alexander/section8/page/2/


“Despite Alexander's expectations of an ambush, Babylon readily surrendered to him. He rested his army there for over a month, indulging in the city's luxury. Before leaving, Alexander surprised many by reinstating Mazaeus as the satrap–a surprise since the general had battled against Alexander just a month before. There were practical reasons for Alexander's decision, as he wanted to win the support of Iranians in neighboring states. The decision also reflects Alexander's vision for the empire, which included cooperation and the peaceful incorporation of the Persians.

Again, the Macedonians proceeded to win over city by city, including the very prosperous Susa, usually without a fight. Alexander then set his sights on Persis, and in particular its capital Persepolis, one of the most venerated Persian cities, whose loss would be devastating to Darius. At the entrance to Persis, Alexander faced an impenetrable wall held by Ariobarzanes, the province's satrap. The wall had been constructed so that only a frontal attack was possible, yet efforts to this end proved futile.

https://www.sparknotes.com/biography/alexander/section9/

AND STAMPED UPON HIM

Daniel 8:7 And I saw him come close unto the ram, and he was moved with choler against him, and smote the ram, and brake his two horns: and there was no power in the ram to stand before him, but he cast him down to the ground, and stamped upon him: and there was none that could deliver the ram out of his hand. https://www.kingjamesbibleonline.org/Daniel-Chapter-8/

STAMPED H7429

רָמַס râmaç, raw-mas'; a primitive root; to tread upon (as a potter, in walking or abusively):—oppressor, stamp upon, trample (under feet), tread (down, upon).https://www.blueletterbible.org/lang/Lexicon/Lexicon.cfm?strongs=H7429&t=KJV


However, Alexander once again had the good fortune to find a Persian prisoner who offered to show a path that would allow Alexander's forces to come out behind the Persian wall. The difficult twelve-mile path took almost two days, but the ambush left the surrounded Persians helpless. Despite his recent restraint, Alexander allowed the plundering of the city, and even participated in the burning of the city palaces himself. Though Alexander received condemnation for this indulgence, his behavior here did have one ironic side effect. Persepolis, which was never rebuilt, became a ghost town, and today it serves as a rich source for archaeologists and one of the few non-Greek sources for Persian history. Between Babylon, Susa, and Persepolis, Alexander had accumulated about 180,000 talents–estimated at approximately forty-four million pounds sterling by the 1913 standard. In comparison, Athens, the wealthiest Greek city-state at the time, had a total revenue of only 400 talents annually.

Alexander's hunt for Darius continued, but was halted with the shocking news broke that Darius had been deposed. Darius had always had rivals in the nobility, and the weakness revealed by Alexander's invasion had increased Darius's unpopularity considerably. The revolt against him was led by Nabarzanes and Bessus, who assumed the title of Great King. They placed Darius in chains and headed for Bactria, where Alexander now planned to meet them. Darius allegedly refused to mount a horse, and his awkward wagon slowed down the escape, so the conspirators ran him through with javelins and left him to die. When Alexander came upon the dead king, he sent the body to be buried with full honors at Persepolis, where the other Persian kings were buried. Although Alexander is said to have been moved by the site of Darius's dead body, the murder was convenient for Alexander; taking the king alive would have given the opposition reason to remain hopeful, while executing him would have alienated all of Persia. With Darius dead, Alexander became the undisputed ruler of Persia.”

https://www.sparknotes.com/biography/alexander/section9/

In summary, the methodology Alexander the Great used to destroy the kings of Medo-Persia was to speedily divide and conquer, playing off the city states against each other.He did it in the attitude of rage.He even intermingled the Greeks and Persians by marriage.He was motivated to totally destroy Medo-Persia by bitterness.Once He destroyed their king there was no power remaining in Medo-persia to withstand Alexander the Great.Medo-Persia fell to Greece.

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