DANIEL 8:10A LITTLE HORN WAXES GREAT EVEN TO THE HOST OF HEAVEN
Updated: Dec 16, 2022
CHAPTER 10 A
In this chapter we will look at the insignificant, Little Horn power as he waxes great or advances in pride and earthly power against the army or host of God as represented by the stars of heaven. Please remember to read the previous chapter on Daniel 8:9 regarding the Little Horn’s geographical origins and growth to understand papal growth out of a pagan/pseudo-Christian power.
Daniel 8:10 And it waxed great, even to the host of heaven; and it cast down some of the host and of the stars to the ground, and stamped upon them.
11 Yea, he magnified himself even to the prince of the host, and by him the daily sacrifice was taken away, and the place of his sanctuary was cast down. https://www.kingjamesbibleonline.org/Daniel-Chapter-8/
גָּדַל gâdal, gaw-dal'; a primitive root; properly, to twist (compare H1434), i.e. to be (causatively make) large (in various senses, as in body, mind, estate or honor, also in pride):—advance, boast, bring up, exceed, excellent, be(-come, do, give, make, wax), great(-er, come to... estate, things), grow(up), increase, lift up, magnify(-ifical), be much set by, nourish (up), pass, promote, proudly (spoken), tower. https://www.blueletterbible.org/lang/Lexicon/Lexicon.cfm?strongs=H1431&t=KJV
Daniel 8:10 tells us that this little (insignificant horn) waxes great meaning large, boastful, magnificent, proud against the armies of heaven. But to understand this we need to understand the meaning of the word “host”. We will begin by looking at the Hebrew translation of the word “host”.
HOST OF HEAVEN
Daniel 8:10 And it waxed great, even to the host of heaven; and it cast down some of the host and of the stars to the ground, and stamped upon them. https://www.kingjamesbibleonline.org/Daniel-Chapter-8/
The Hebrew word “tsaba” translated “host” means army.
צָבָא tsâbâʼ, tsaw-baw'; or (feminine) צְבָאָה tsᵉbâʼâh; from H6633; a mass of persons (or figuratively, things), especially reg. organized for war (an army); by implication, a campaign, literally or figuratively (specifically, hardship, worship):—appointed time, (+) army, (+) battle, company, host, service, soldiers, waiting upon, war(-fare).https://www.blueletterbible.org/lang/Lexicon/Lexicon.cfm?strongs=H6635&t=KJV
Does God have a host or army? Yes, and according to the next four Bible passages, people on this earth that He chooses or who choose to follow Him are a part of His army.
Exodus 12:7 And ye shall observe the feast of unleavened bread; for in this selfsame day have I brought your armies out of the land of Egypt: therefore shall ye observe this day in your generations by an ordinance for ever….. 40 Now the sojourning of the children of Israel, who dwelt in Egypt, was four hundred and thirty years.
41 And it came to pass at the end of the four hundred and thirty years, even the selfsame day it came to pass, that all the hostsof the LORD went out from the land of Egypt…..
51 And it came to pass the selfsame day, that the LORD did bring the children of Israel out of the land of Egypt by their armies.
1 Samuel 17:45 Then said David to the Philistine, Thou comest to me with a sword, and with a spear, and with a shield: but I come to thee in the name of the LORD of hosts, the God of the armies of Israel, whom thou hast defied. https://www.kingjamesbibleonline.org/1-Samuel-Chapter-17/
Psalms 68:11 The Lord gave the word: great was the company (army) of those that published it.
12 Kings of armies did flee apace: and she that tarried at home divided the spoil. https://www.kingjamesbibleonline.org/Psalms-Chapter-68/
Ezekiel 37:9 Then said he unto me, Prophesy unto the wind, prophesy, son of man, and say to the wind, Thus saith the Lord GOD; Come from the four winds, O breath, and breathe upon these slain, that they may live.
10 So I prophesied as he commanded me, and the breath came into them, and they lived, and stood up upon their feet, an exceeding great army. https://www.kingjamesbibleonline.org/Ezekiel-Chapter-37/
The King or Lord of Hosts is worshipped by angels and is Commander and Chief of His own army or hosts.
Isaiah 6:3 And one cried unto another, and said, Holy, holy, holy, is the LORD of hosts: the whole earth is full of his glory.
4 And the posts of the door moved at the voice of him that cried, and the house was filled with smoke.
5 Then said I, Woe is me! for I am undone; because I am a man of unclean lips, and I dwell in the midst of a people of unclean lips: for mine eyes have seen the King, the LORD of hosts.
And according to the following passages, the angels are part of the hosts or armies of God, with Michael as their leader.
Luke 2:13 And suddenly there was with the angel a multitude of the heavenly host praising God, and saying,
Revelation 12:7 And there was war in heaven: Michael and his angels fought against the dragon; and the dragon fought and his angels,
8 And prevailed not; neither was their place found any more in heaven.
9 And the great dragon was cast out, that old serpent, called the Devil, and Satan, which deceiveth the whole world: he was cast out into the earth, and his angels were cast out with him.
Just before Christ ascended to heaven, as Commander and Chief of His armies, He gave command to his soldiers here on earth.
20 Teaching them to observe all things whatsoever I have commanded you: and, lo, I am with you alway, even unto the end of the world. Amen. https://www.kingjamesbibleonline.org/Matthew-Chapter-28/
And Paul tells us how to equip ourselves as soldiers in the army of heaven.
From the start, the Emperor Constantine began to mix Christian thinking with pagan thinking. It was through the small beginnings of mixing Christianity with pagan ideas through Emperor Constantine that Satan would grow a Little Horn Power into a state/church system that would have the appearance of Christianity but would be infiltrated with paganism and would exalt itself to heaven. This system would look like the armies of heaven due to its semblance or false system of worship on earth. See the history below.
Daniel 8:10 And it waxed great, even to the host of heaven; and it cast down some of the host and of the stars to the ground, and stamped upon them. https://www.kingjamesbibleonline.org/Daniel-Chapter-8/
CONSTANTINE & CHRISTIANITY
During his years of warfare in the west he had always demonstrated religious tolerance with both pagans and Christians (he claimed to be a Christian since 312 CE). His mother Helena was a devout Christian, and after Constantine became emperor, he sent her on a pilgrimage to the Holy Land where she had built the Church of the Nativity at Bethlehem. Although he had been a worshipper of the sun-god in his youth and while some claim he did not become baptized until his deathbed, he still gave every indication that he was a devoted Christian. He is even credited by many historians with making Christianity the official religion of the empire (although others credit Emperor Theodosius), despite the fact that pagan symbols of Sol Invictus and Mars appeared on his coins. While he tolerated certain pagan religious practices, pagan sacrifices were forbidden, temple treasures seized, gladiatorial contests ended (Christians disliked them), crucifixions were abolished, and laws were enacted against sexual immorality and ritual prostitution.
Although he kept some remnants of the old city, New Rome --four times the size of Byzantium-- was said to have been inspired by the Christian God, yet remained classical in every sense. Built on seven hills (just like Old Rome), the city was divided into fourteen districts. Supposedly laid out by Constantine himself, there were wide avenues lined with statues of Alexander the Great, Caesar, Augustus, Diocletian, and of course, Constantine dressed in the garb of Apollo with a scepter in one hand and a globe in the other. The city was centered on two colonnaded streets (dating back to Septimus Severus) that intersected near the baths of Zeuxippus and the Testratoon.”
Religion took on new meaning in the empire. Although Constantine openly supported Christianity (his mother was one), historians doubt whether or not he truly ever became a Christian, waiting until his deathbed to convert. New Rome would boast temples to pagan deities (he had kept the old acropolis) and several Christian churches; Hagia Irene was one of the first churches commissioned by Constantine. It would perish during the Nika Revolts under Justinian in 532 CE.
In 330 CE, Constantine consecrated the Empire’s new capital, a city which would one day bear the emperor’s name. Constantinople would become the economic and cultural hub of the east and the center of both Greek classics and Christian ideals. Its importance would take on new meaning with Alaric’s invasion of Rome in 410 CE and the eventual fall of the city to Odoacer in 476 CE. During the Middle Ages, the city would become a refuge for ancient Greek and Roman texts.
Constantinople (Greek: Κωνσταντινούπολις, translit. Kōnstantinoúpolis; Latin: Cōnstantīnopolis) was the capital city of the Roman/Byzantine Empire (330–1204 and 1261–1453), and also of the brief Crusader state known as the Latin Empire (1204–1261), until finally falling to the Ottoman (1453–1923) empire. It was reinaugurated in 324 from ancient Byzantium as the new capital of the Roman Empire by Emperor Constantine the Great, after whom it was named, and dedicated on 11 May 330. The city was largely located in what is now the European side and the core of modern Istanbul.
The Byzantine Empire, often called the Eastern Roman Empire or simply Byzantium, existed from 330 to 1453 CE. With its capital founded at Constantinople by Constantine I (r. 306-337 CE), the Empire varied in size over the centuries, at one time or another, possessing territories located in Italy, Greece, the Balkans, Levant, Asia Minor, and North Africa. A Christian state with Greek as the official language, the Byzantines developed their own political systems, religious practices, art and architecture, which, although significantly influenced by the Greco-Roman cultural tradition, were distinct and not merely a continuation of ancient Rome. The Byzantine Empire was the longest-lasting medieval power, and its influence continues today, especially in the religion, art, architecture, and law of many Western states, Eastern and Central Europe, and Russia.
Historically, the term "Greek Orthodox" has also been used to describe all Eastern Orthodox Churches in general, since "Greek" in "Greek Orthodox" can refer to the heritage of the Byzantine Empire. During the first eight centuries of Christian history, most major intellectual, cultural, and social developments in the Christian Church took place within the Empire or in the sphere of its influence, where the Greek language was widely spoken and used for most theological writings. Over time, most parts of the liturgy, traditions, and practices of the church of Constantinople were adopted by all, and still provide the basic patterns of contemporary Orthodoxy. Thus, the Eastern Church came to be called "Greek" Orthodox in the same way that the Western Church is called "Roman" Catholic. However, the appellation "Greek" was abandoned by the Slavic and other Eastern Orthodox churches in connection with their peoples' national awakenings, from as early as the 10th century A.D. Thus, today it is generally only those churches that are most closely tied to Greek or Byzantine culture that are called "Greek Orthodox". https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Greek_Orthodox_Church
“THE BYZANTINE CHURCH
Paganism continued to be practiced for centuries after the foundation of Byzantium, but it was Christianity which became the defining feature of Byzantine culture, profoundly affecting its politics, foreign relations, and art and architecture. The Church was headed by the Patriarch or bishop of Constantinople, who was appointed or removed by the emperor. Local bishops, who presided over larger towns and their surrounding territories and who represented both the church and emperor, had considerable wealth and powers in their local communities. Christianity, then, became an important common denominator which helped bind together diverse cultures into a single empire which included Christian Greeks, Armenians, Slavs, Georgians, and many other minorities, and those of other faiths such as Jews and Musli.”https://www.ancient.eu/Byzantine_Empire/
Eastern Orthodox Catholics and Roman Catholics are the result of what is known as the East-West Schism (or Great Schism) of 1054, when medieval Christianity split into two branches. https://www.dummies.com/religion/christianity/catholicism/the-split-that-created-roman-catholics-and-eastern-orthodox-catholics/
The Byzantine split with Roman Catholicism came about when Pope Leo III crowned Charlemagne, King of the Franks, as Holy Roman Emperor in 800. From the Byzantine viewpoint, this was a slap to the Eastern Emperor and the Byzantine Empire itself — an empire that had withstood barbarian invasions and upheld the faith for centuries. After Rome fell in 476, Byzantium was the only vestige of the Holy Roman Empire. https://www.dummies.com/religion/christianity/catholicism/the-split-that-created-roman-catholics-and-eastern-orthodox-catholics/
Charlemagne’s crowning made the Byzantine Emperor redundant, and relations between the East and the West deteriorated until a formal split occurred in 1054. The Eastern Church became the Greek Orthodox Church by severing all ties with Rome and the Roman Catholic Church — from the pope to the Holy Roman Emperor on down. https://www.dummies.com/religion/christianity/catholicism/the-split-that-created-roman-catholics-and-eastern-orthodox-catholics/
Over the centuries, the Eastern Church and Western Church became more distant and isolated for the following reasons:
· Geography: The West encompassed Western Europe and the northern and western areas of the Mediterranean and the East took up Asia Minor, the Middle East, and Northern Africa.
· Ignorance: The Byzantine Church knew less and less Latin and even less Latin tradition, and vice versa. So most patriarchs in Constantinople couldn’t read any Latin, and most popes in Rome couldn’t read any Greek. Byzantines in the East used leavened bread in their Divine Liturgy to symbolize the Risen Christ, and Latins in the West used unleavened bread as was used by Jesus at the Last Supper.
· Different theologies: Both were valid, but each had its own perspective. The West (Latin) was more practical and, although fully believing in the divinity of Christ, put emphasis on his humanity when depicting Jesus in art — especially by making realistic crucifixes. The East (Byzantine) was more theoretical and, although fully believing in the humanity of Christ, focused on his divinity, which was much more mysterious.
· Personalities and politics: Michael Cerularius, Patriarch of Constantinople, and Pope St. Leo IX weren’t friends, and each one mistrusted the other. Cerularius crossed the line when he wrote in a letter that the Latin use of unleavened bread was Jewish but not Christian. He was denying the validity of the Holy Eucharist in the Western Church. Leo countered by saying that the patriarchs had always been puppets of the Byzantine emperors.
In the end, Pope Leo and Patriarch Michael excommunicated each other and their respective churches. But more than 900 years later, in 1965, Pope Paul VI and Patriarch Athenagoras I of Constantinople removed the mutual excommunications. https://www.dummies.com/religion/christianity/catholicism/the-split-that-created-roman-catholics-and-eastern-orthodox-catholics/
Eastern Orthodox branches include the Ruthenian, Ukrainian, Greek Catholic, Melkite, Romanian, and Italo-Albanian Byzantine Churches. In addition to the Byzantine, Eastern Catholics also include Maronite, Coptic or Chaldean Catholic Churches.
In any event, the schism that divided Christendom right down the middle exists to this day. Although both sides accept the validity of each one’s orders and sacraments, no inter-Communion exists between the Roman Catholic and the Eastern Orthodox. That means that normally speaking, Catholics aren’t allowed to receive Holy Communion in Orthodox Churches, and conversely, Orthodox shouldn’t receive Holy Communion in Catholic Churches. https://www.dummies.com/religion/christianity/catholicism/the-split-that-created-roman-catholics-and-eastern-orthodox-catholics/
The following source is a very good article on the history of the Roman Catholic church.
The following is a good source for how the Byzantine Roman emperor Justinian (527-565 AD) overcame the three horns of Daniel 7:7 & 8 (Arian kingdoms) including Vandal, Ostrogothic, and Visigothic kingdoms which enabled the establishment of the establishment medieval Roman Catholic church.
Also see this to get copy of the Emperor Justinian’s decree recognizing the papal head of state.
Source: Corpus Juris Civilis (The Civil Law, the Code of Justinian), by S.P. Scott, A.M., published by the Central Trust Company, Cincinnati, copyright 1932, Volume 12 [of 17], pages 9-12, 125.
For a discussion on the differences in the eastern and western churches of the Byzantine Roman Empire and why the western world did not easily recognize the eastern church, see the following:
The differences in the eastern and western church was one of the reasons that the Byzantine Empire received such a poor representation in western medieval histories. Frequently Byzantines were portrayed as decadent and shifty, their culture stagnant, and their religion a dangerous heresy. The churches of the east and west disagreed on who should have priority, the Pope or the Patriarch of Constantinople. Matters of doctrine were also contested, such as did Jesus Christ have one human and one divine nature combined or just a divine nature. Clerical celibacy, the use of leavened or unleavened bread, the language of service, and the use of imagery were all points of differences, which, with the fuel of political and territorial ambitions added into the volatile mix of emotions, led to the Church Schism of 1054 CE. https://www.ancient.eu/Byzantine_Empire/
The Byzantine church also had its own internal disputes, most infamously the iconoclasm or ‘destruction of images’ of 726-787 CE and 814-843 CE. The Popes and many Byzantines supported the use of icons - representations of holy figures but especially Jesus Christ. Those against icons believed they had become idols and it was blasphemous to think that God could be represented in art. The issue also reignited the debate over whether Christ had two natures or one and whether an icon, therefore, only represented the human. Defenders of icons said that they were merely an artist’s impression and helped the illiterate better understand the divine. During the wave of iconoclasm, many precious artworks were destroyed, especially during the reigns of Leo III (r. 717-741 CE) and his successor Constantine V (r. 741-775 CE) when even people who venerated icons (iconophiles) were persecuted. The issue was resolved in favour of icons in 843 CE, an event known as the “Triumph of Orthodoxy".
Monasticism was a particular feature of Byzantine religious life. Men and women retired to monasteries where they devoted their lives to Christ and helping the poor and sick. There they lived a simple life according to rules laid out by such important church figures as Basil the Great (c. 330 - c. 379 CE). Many monks were also scholars, most famously Saint Cyril (d. 867 CE) who invented the Glagolitic alphabet. A notable woman who used her time of retreat well was Anna Komnene (1083-1153 CE), who wrote her Alexiad on the life and reign of her father Alexios I Komnenos (r. 1081-1118 CE). Monasteries thus became invaluable repositories of texts and knowledge while their wine-production and icon workshops were greatly appreciated, too. One of the most celebrated monastic sites is Mount Athos near Thessalonica, where monks established themselves from the 9th century CE, eventually building 46 monasteries there, many of which survive today. https://www.ancient.eu/Byzantine_Empire/
The apostle Paul, in II Thessalonians 2, prophetically tells about the rise and fall of this papal power so the world would know who the man of sin is. He said this apostate power was beginning to rise even in his day. Even then he saw compromise with truth that would prepare the way for the development of the papacy.
In summary, we have seen how the Little Horn power waxed great against the host of heaven by mixing Christianity with pagan ideas initiated through Emperor Constantine. Paganism infiltrated Christianity, polluting the truth as it is in Jesus Christ resulting in a state/church system of false religion eventually called the papacy in the Western world and the Eastern Orthodox Church in the Eastern world. It would appear to be the host of God but would really be fighting against the host of God.